point de vue des experts et des contestataires. One Neanderthal grave also contained a small bone flute. diagonal cut) can be reconstructed, and where lower and upper jaw premolar teeth and their antagonistic tooth mark impact holes fit exactly to the hyena skull dentition. Potok Cave), Slovenia [].This was a larger cave bear den (cf. (eremus or spelaeus) and the large U. ingressus, and from mountainous regions, where Ice Age spotted hyenas were around all over Europe (cf. The first ‘Neanderthal cave bear bone flute’ from the Middle Palaeolithic was believed to have been discovered in the 1920s from Potočka Zijalka Jama Cave (i.e. Studied and referred Late Pleistocene (MIS3–5d) European cave sites with ‘Palaeolithic cave bear pseudo-bone flutes’, and compared cave bear dens with hyena influence (hyena palaeobiogeography of 150 sites [4]). All cave bear pseudo-bone flutes are not dated to Neanderthal Middle Palaeolithic Mousterian layers, but instead, if possible to date, to Late Palaeolithic, Aurignacian/Gravettian layers. [3,4,16,18–21,51,56]; figure 2). Indeed, neither hyenas, modern nor extinct, nor any carnivores mentioned use canines for ‘bone crushing’ (e.g. When he’s not watching YouTube videos of cats playing the piano, you can find him foraging in the wild or hammering on a set of drums. Paleolitska koščena piščalka iz Divijih Bab I. subsp.) The exact carnivore was never estimated, even by newer and fully controversial studies by Turk et al. Ichnological and ethological studies in one of Europe's famous bear den in the Urşilor Cave (Carpathians, Romania). Did neanderthals play music? Koščene piščali: pričetek slovenske, evropske in svetovne instrumentalne glasbene zgodovine. (5–6) Cub radi from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. Also, possibly most herbivorous small U. s. eremus and full herbivorous U. ingressus (e.g. In a world bursting with news, nature is our niche – and we love it that way. All former archaeological, ecological focus cave bear ‘bone flute’ studies forgot all four cave bear predators—steppe lions (Panthera leo spelaea), leopards (Panthera pardus spelaea), Ice Age spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) and Ice Age wolves (Canis lupus spelaeus)—which are known now to be cave bear killers, and main consumers in mountain regions, where mammoth steppe megafauna were absent [4,18–21]. definitions and discussions in [4,14,18–20,20,21,54,74]. (a) Lateral outer view, (b) lateral inner view, (c–e) details of puncture holes of both sides and (f) refitting of the jaw with all tooth marks of both sides projected in one level which fit in one tooth mark of the bone crushing teeth of the upper jaw of a hyena (all PAL collection).Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. There are further arguments for the hyena origin on longbone shaft punctures found similar to radius and tibia cub shafts which are similar to femur shaft cross section, but stronger in their compacta in this animal age stage (figure 4). Between damage stages 2 (cutting) and 3 (cracking), there are already differences in cub to adult cave bear femora (figures 6 and 7). Cutting off the joints is recognized in all age classes of cave bears. All aforementioned femora and other cave bear bones with ‘holes’ (i.e. diagonal cut) with increasing femur sizes (figures 5–7). Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe—most northern European population, highest elevated records in the Alps, complete skeletons in the Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art. His scholarship and that of his colleagues resulted in accurate dating and description of the flute and its context (Turk et al, 1997). Did Neanderthals play music? The Divje Babe flute is believed to be one of the earliest examples of a musical instrument. 2.1. That’s especially true of our planet’s countless wild species: big and small, threatened and persecuted, complex and fascinating. also carnivore fauna in [25]) are none, because as ignored in intensive cave bear den cave site taphonomy studies of Europe, the models of presence and absence of any large predator are well known [4,13,18,19,23]. Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. figure 2). This area is thinner in the compacta than the dorsal one. [33,70,71]). [68]). (4) Shaft from the Oase Cave, Romania, cranial (IR collection). There, the cave bear layers themselves, which generally span from the MIS3–5d=25,000–113,000 BP, overlap/intercalate with the Cro-Magnon times, mainly Aurignacian, partly Gravettian, cultural layers [5,23,57]. This report of a ‘cave bear femur bone flute’ was not the ‘oldest’, neither historically, nor by stratigraphy. and U. ingressus) cub femora (less than 1 year individual age) from various European large cave bear den sites. In total, holes are ventral (7×), dorsal (3×) and in five cases on both sides. (1) Cub skull (small cave bear form U. spelaeus eremus) from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany, which was scavenged strongly on the left side. In stage 3, subadult cave bear femora already started to crush, which is demonstrated from at least one example from Hermann's Cave (figure 5(6)). 'Neanderthal flutes' were actually snacks for Ice Age hyenas The Divje Babe flute is believed to be one of the earliest examples of a musical instrument. [24]; see figures 1, 5–7 and table 1). prey storage den type). (a) Dorsal, (b) lateral, (c) detail of tooth mark hole (GTCP collection). The final proof of holes in femur shafts comes from the crushed and flaked specimens (figure 6(8–14)), which are documented herein for the first time within a cave bear den. Those are the most important to understand their hyena tooth mark impact origin, because those can be attributed well to the upper and lower jaw antagonistic bone crushing premolar teeth (figures 5(1–6), 6(10) and 7(1)). Amazing, right? Potočka zijalka: visokoalpska postaja aurignacienskih lovcev (Potočka zijalka—eine hochalpine Aurignacienjäger-Station). [24]). Neither carnivores nor cave bears (herbivorous) used their canine teeth to crush longbones, or any other bones. Oldest and most northern Late Palaeolithic cave bear hunters in Europe. On average 80% of the cub, and 20% of the adult cave bear bones have large predator damage. Neanderthals that lived in warmer climates had longer arms and legs. 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